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Bladder Cancer


What is Bladder Cancer?

These tumors are classified by the way they grow:

  • Papillary tumors look like warts and are attached to a stalk.
  • Nonpapillary (sessile) tumors are flat. They are much less common. But they are more invasive and have a worse outcome.

The exact cause of bladder cancer is not known. But several things may make you more likely to develop it:

  • Cigarette smoking. Smoking greatly increases the risk of developing bladder cancer. Up to half of all bladder cancers in men and several in women may be caused by cigarette smoke.
  • Chemical exposure at work. About one in four cases of bladder cancer is caused by coming into contact with to cancer-causing chemicals at work. These chemicals are called carcinogens. Dye workers, rubber workers, aluminum workers, leather workers, truck drivers, and pesticide applicators are at the highest risk.
  • Chemotherapy: The chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Your doctor may prescribe a medicine to reduce this risk.
  • Radiation treatment: Women who had radiation therapy to treat cervical cancer have an increased risk of developing bladder cancer.
  • Bladder infection: A long-term (chronic) bladder infection or irritation may lead to a certain type of bladder cancer.

Research has not shown clear evidence that using artificial sweeteners leads to bladder cancer.

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